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which list includes only lifestyle factors that people can change to improve their health

Proper nutrition, weight, and exercise may impact fertility. Though no definitive link has been drawn, choosing proper nutrition, whether it be choosing supplements or food groups, before and during attempts to conceive may be vital for improving fertility for both men and women. Men and women who are underweight or overweight are also at risk for negative side effects, including changes in hormone levels that heavily influence their fertility. Recent research suggests that weight plays an important role in fertility, and controlling and maintaining an ideal weight may provide a way for couples to increase their fertility. Exercise is suggested to be beneficial, though too much may be detrimental. Lean and underweight men or women who exercise vigorously may put themselves at risk for a decrease in fertility, thus finding a balance may provide the best chances of achieving a pregnancy.

The evidence suggests that age may play a large role in determining fertility. Attempting pregnancy before the age of 30 for women and before 35 for men may provide the highest chances of success. While it is important for one partner to consider their age, it is when both partners consider their ages together that they may be able to thoroughly increase their odds of having a successful pregnancy.

RKS conceived the study, participated in the study design compilation of the contents and critical review of the paper. KRB and JMF were responsible for literature (Medline) search, compilation of the information, drafting and finalizing the paper. AA provided substantial contribution ranging from study idea, design, and critical review of the final paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Concerning environmental exposures, assessing the exposures of each individual may be crucial to reproductive health of the couple. Eliminating every exposure is unrealistic; however, identifying, eliminating, or minimizing even one factor may have significant positive effects on fertility for both men and women.

When helping people develop a healthier lifestyle, career choice is another area that health psychology explore. There is a direct relationship between choices of work and physical and emotional health. The more frustrating the project the more risk people are placing themselves into developing an emotional and/or psychological illness. When someone is under stress, the body produces chemicals and hormones that it does not require and some of these substances may be harmful. The difficult conditions and the release of these substances results in a weakening of the immune system. When an immune system is weak people are more susceptible to physical and mental ailments (Ader, R. & Cohen, N. 1975).

Physical Health can be effected by the things that people do, by the way they process information, career choice, family dynamics, life troubles and the environment in which they live. For example, someone living in a damp, mildew infested home has a good chance of developing respiratory or sinus problems and may develop allergies.

A difficult task for health psychologists is motivating people to adhere to medical direction and follow the treatment plan. This lack of adherence is possibly do to treatment side effects or life circumstances and some ignore taking medicines or consciously stop. Compliance measures are hard to quantify, however, studies explain that this could improve by tailoring medication schedules to an individual’s daily life.

Every year scientists are discovering new insights into how the brain, body and mind inter-relate and the ways in which they link to each other in harmony. The human brain is one of the most intricate, mysterious, and powerful organs in the entire universe. Science has been able to conjure up ideas in the mind such as, concepts in mathematics and imagine worlds that at this time do not exist. These ideas stem from people wanting to explore the unknown aspects of the mind which has a relationship to the brain and the environment in which they live.

One of Dr. Redline's projects, the HeartBEAT Study, is comparing treatments for sleep apnea to see whether they lower the risk of heart disease. The results of this research, which is funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, may help reduce deaths from heart attacks and strokes.

One noteworthy recommendation is consuming packaged (frozen and canned) fruits and vegetables in addition to fresh produce. Many people believe that only fresh fruits and vegetables are healthy; on the contrary, packaged varieties (without added salt or sugar) may be just as healthy as their fresh counterparts and perhaps even more so since the food is processed soon after harvesting. This early processing protects the food from nutrient losses due to heat, oxygen, and light.

Myriad studies have focused on the beneficial effects of the omega-3 fatty acids found in fish. These fats help reduce inflammation and protect the integrity of cell membranes from free radical damage.6 Omega-3 fatty acids may help protect people from age-related neurodegenerative disease, cognitive decline, arthritis, and cardiovascular disease. For those who dislike fish or are vegetarians, other excellent sources of omega-3 fats include flaxseed and flax oil, canola oil, walnuts, soybeans, hemp seeds, and large amounts of leafy green vegetables.

“These choices are easier to prepare and have a longer shelf life, minimizing waste,” says Alice H. Lichtenstein, DSc, researcher and author of the paper announcing the recommendations. Canned and frozen fruits and vegetables are often less expensive than fresh varieties, and they’re readily available when it’s more difficult for people to get to a grocery store.

You didn't provide us with a list really but lifestyle factors which people cant take and drastically improve their health are usually considered to be taking up different types of sports, being physically active in general or eating healthy.

The drive of the National Blueprint is to mobilize mid-life and older adults. It contains recommendations spanning the areas of Research, Home and Community, Workplace, Health Care Systems, and Policy Arena. It is a multi-pronged effort to make physical activity an integral and vital part of life.

Considerable research has been aimed at identifying factors that contribute to successful lifestyle change as well as more effective tools for clinicians — especially in the context of a brief office visit — to counsel their patients on adopting healthier habits. One problem may be that we're motivated too often by a sense of guilt, fear, or regret. Experts who study behavior change agree that long-lasting change is most likely when it's self-motivated and rooted in positive thinking. In October 2006, the Economic and Social Research Council, a British research group, released findings on 129 different studies of behavior change strategies. The survey confirmed that the least effective strategies were those that aroused fear or regret in the person attempting to make a change.

Studies have also shown that goals are easier to reach if they're specific ("I'll walk 20 minutes a day," rather than "I'll get more exercise") and not too numerous (having too many goals limits the amount of attention and willpower you can devote to reaching any single goal). Another recurring theme is that it's not enough to have a goal: You also need practical ways to reach it. For example, if your goal is to stick to a low-calorie diet, have a plan in place for quelling hunger pangs (for example, keep a bottle of water or cup of tea nearby, or chew sugarless gum).

There are several models of behavior change, but the one most widely applied and tested in health settings is the transtheoretical model (TTM). First developed in the 1980s by alcoholism researchers James O. Prochaska and Carlo C. DiClemente, TTM presumes that at any given time, a person is in one of five stages of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, or maintenance.

Research has also produced models that help account for success and failure, and explain why making healthy changes can take so long. The expert conclusion is that any effort you make in the right direction is worthwhile, even if you encounter setbacks or find yourself backsliding from time to time.

Many diabetes patients find it challenging to make the lifestyle changes necessary to stay healthy, including changing their diet. Making healthy lifestyle choices is important for people with type 2 diabetes. Psychologists can help patients change their behaviors to gradually improve eating habits, activity levels and their overall outlook. They can also help patients learn effective strategies to ensure they regularly test blood glucose, take their medications and complete other diabetes self-management activities.

Often, people newly diagnosed with diabetes have trouble accepting the diagnosis, especially if they feel physically healthy and are not experiencing any symptoms of the disease. Psychologists can help people address emotional reactions such as disbelief, guilt and anxiety and learn how to accept their condition.

When you're under stress, your body signals its nervous system and pituitary gland to produce epinephrine and cortisol, known as "stress hormones." When cortisol and epinephrine are released, the liver produces more glucose, a blood sugar. For people who are already diabetic or at risk for diabetes that extra blood sugar can be dangerous to your health.

Psychologists may work with diabetes patients and their families, either through an independent private practice or as part of a healthcare team in a clinical setting. Sometimes a psychologist will work with diabetes patients who have been referred by a physician, dietician or other health care professional.


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