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attenuated rabies vaccines for cats

For PEP, vaccines must rapidly induce protective levels of specific rage YEAR. An improved vaccine against rabies PEP should be inexpensive and reduce the number of doses from four to five doses currently used. Ideally, such a vaccine would also require little or no RIG. Vaccines based on gene transfer technology will inevitably retard immune responses, because they require the transcription and translation before starting the vaccine antigen is expressed. DNA vaccines and recombinant viral vaccines thus can not be optimal for PEP. Better adjuvants would increase the immunogenicity of existing vaccines and should be clearly pursued further with new vaccines in development. Rage attenuated mutants in which the crucial genes are deleted and replaced by a second glycoprotein gene, have been shown to induce preclinical stronger immune responses than traditional vaccines and the answers came quickly. These viral mutants can be perfectly adapted to replace current vaccines for PEP.

Ad vectors from different species and serotypes have been widely tested as vaccine carriers for a variety of different pathogens. The ads are ubiquitous pathogens and prevalence of AN to the most common serotypes is high in humans and animals. AN inhibit or weaken the infection of host cells by Ad correspondent or a vaccine vector based on ads, resulting in reduced immune responses to antigen encoded. Ad vectors based on serotypes that are common in a given target species should therefore not be used as a vaccine carrier in this species, such as the desired immune response will be highly variable depending the presence and extent of specific -AD AN in the vaccine recipient.

Given the seriousness of rabies and its high incidence continues in developing countries, the development of new vaccines against rabies is justified. A preventive vaccine used for immunization of children, particularly those countries with high incidence, could be expected to lower mortality rates. Such a vaccine should be inexpensive and provide lasting protection, preferably after application of a single dose. For PEP, new patterns are needed that allow a reduction of the rare and expensive RIG and a lowering of the number of doses of vaccine.

To compile this review, the literature was selected from PubMed searches. Given the multitude of manuscripts describing new platforms vaccines, only a limited number of them could be cited. Emphasis is placed on the reports that have used standardized tests to assess immunogenicity over conventional vaccines, and that the effectiveness of preventive vaccination testing or PEP test models. Ultimately, the type (s ) of the vaccine which is ( are ) the most promising candidates to replace the current regimes, is ( are ) the one (s) that surpasses all current vaccines.

The use of living organisms in vaccines has many advantages. More particularly, they are generally more efficient than the inactivated vaccines to elicit immune responses in cell-mediated. Their use, however, has also some risks. Thus, the virulence of a living organism used for vaccination should be reduced, so that it is able to replicate but no longer pathogenic. The attenuation level is essential to the success of the vaccine. Underattenuation cause residual virulence and disease ( reversion to virulence ); overattenuation will result in an ineffective vaccine. Reversion to virulence rigorous studies should be conducted to demonstrate the stability of the attenuation. Attenuated vaccines should not be used to vaccinate the species for which they have not been tested or approved. Attenuated pathogenic for animals may be over- or under- attenuated in other animals. Thus, they can either cause disease or did not provide adequate protection.

This type of DNA vaccine is successfully used to protect horses against infection with West Nile virus. This approach has been applied experimentally to produce vaccines against the viruses that cause bird flu, lymphocytic choriomeningitis, feline and canine rabies, parvo canine, bovine viral diarrhea, feline immunodeficiency virus-related disorders, feline leukemia, pseudorabies, FMD, bovine herpesvirus related disease, Newcastle disease, among others,. Because they can produce a response similar to that induced by live attenuated vaccines, the polynucleotide vaccines are ideally suited for use against organisms that are difficult or dangerous to grown in the laboratory. DNA vaccines appear to be able to induce immunity, even with very high titers of maternal antibodies. Immunization with DNA purified in this manner allows the presentation of viral antigens in their native form, they are synthesized in the same manner as antigens during viral infection.

Attenuation of viruses prolonged tissue culture can be seen as a primitive form of genetic engineering. Ideally, this resulted in the development of a strain of virus that was incapable of causing disease. It was often difficult to achieve, and reversion to virulence was a constant danger. Molecular genetic techniques, it is now possible to modify the genes of an organism so that it becomes irreversible attenuated. Deliberate suppression of genes that encode proteins associated with virulence is a procedure increasingly attractive. For example, the deleted vaccines were first used against the herpes virus pseudorabies in swine. In this case, the thymidine kinase gene was removed from the virus. Herpesvirus thymidine kinase requires return latency. Viruses of this gene has been eliminated can infect neurons, but can not replicate and cause disease.

Viral vectors of the most widely used vaccines are poxviruses such as canary pox, vaccinia, and herpes viruses. These viruses have a large genome which facilitates insertion of new genes. They also express relatively high levels of the recombinant antigen. In at least some cases, Vector vaccines appear able to induce immunity even when high levels of maternal antibodies are present. Canarypox vector vaccines incorporating genes from distemper virus are now used to immunize dogs, and a similar vector containing the gene encoding the rabies glycoprotein effectively protects dogs and cats against rabies.

The types of viral research going on today, including applications in biological warfare, are mainly due to the development of new vaccines on the market in the name of medicine "preventive" human and veterinary. The risks of genetic engineering new vaccines are substantial. Combine the release of the GE vaccines in the environment with the recent statement of rabies virus rapidly changing in Arizona and other parts of the United States. It is crossed bats infect, foxes, skunks, and, and health authorities are rightly concerned that the virus could soon jump into the human population, such as the Hanta virus and West Nile virus. Adding live attenuated vaccines in such media is against pathogen - intuitive.

Some virologists now recognize that a gap of at least 3 to 4 weeks is desirable between giving a single vaccine, then another, because if not so spaced immune response to the second vaccine may be inadequate and not produce sufficient antibodies specific to provide protective immunity. If it is a viral infection dormant / latent already present in the recipient, vaccination against another pathogen could depress the immune system leading to the activation of latent viral infection and expressing a new disease. This may be the case in cats, for example, can come down with leukemia or feline herpes virus infections after receiving a feline distemper or rabies vaccine against. Therefore, it concerns me that the two human beings, especially children and animals are given combinations of vaccines --- 'cocktails', an all in one trip rather than carefully sequenced series of different vaccinations. It also worries me that veterinarians seem to give little or no consideration to the role of vaccination in the etiology of animal diseases, especially since many of these cases are more widely Next diagnosed repeat - vaccination of dogs and certain breeds of dogs in particular.

When local breeds of domestic dogs in the Serengeti National Park (SNP ) and the Masai Mara in Kenya have been vaccinated against rabies and then shortly after succumbing to a virulent epidemic CD, it would be suggesting that vaccinations against rabies caused some immunosuppression and therefore increased susceptibility to CD. Attenuated vaccines should not be given to animals or stressed and immunocompromised humans.

Some viral vaccines consist of genetically modified chimeric viruses that combine aspects of two infectious viral genomes. An example is the chimeric flavivirus live vaccine against West Nile virus (WNV) in horses ( PreveNile ), registered in the US in 2006. The virus structural genes of the spine YF 17D of the attenuated yellow fever have been replaced by the structural genes of WNV -related. Chimera bird flu vaccine viruses were produced on an existing skeleton virus attenuated strain of Newcastle disease vaccine for protection against influenza virus wild-type as well against the virus of Newcastle disease.

Modified- live virus and inactivated virus vaccines for parenteral administration and live attenuated vaccines for topical ( intranasal and conjunctival ) administration are available. If a sensitive cat is born into or enters an environment in which viral upper respiratory disease is endemic ( eg some catteries, boarding schools and shelters ), the use of a topical product may be advantageous. The administration of these products kitten from the age of 10-14 days of age could be considered in these situations; however, products that live FPV antigens also contain modified should not be administered to kittens under four weeks of age. Adverse events associated with vaccination against FHV- 1 and FCV include mild transient fever, sneezing, conjunctivitis oculonasal discharge, lameness, and for parenteral products, pain in injection site. Sneezing, conjunctivitis, oculonasal discharge, and ulceration of the nasal philtrum are believed to occur more frequently with licensed vaccines for topical use. The tumor formation at the site of a topically administered vaccine has not been reported

Serious adverse events associated with FPV vaccines are rare. The tumor formation at the site of a topically administered vaccine has not been reported. Vaccination of pregnant queens with FPV modified live vaccines can eventually cause neurological disease in the fetus; the same concern applies to kittens vaccinated at least four weeks age. Therefore, the use of live attenuated vaccines should be avoided in pregnant queens and kittens younger than me months of age.

he incidence of many infectious diseases in cats has been greatly reduced through the use of vaccines. Although no vaccine is 100 percent effective, proper use of vaccines allows kittens the best opportunity to grow, robust cats as healthy. Vaccination is not a trivial medical procedure. Rather, it is a simple procedure that initiates a complex biological process, resulting in the vaccination or to protect cats against the infectious agent or agents involved. There are many factors that must be considered before vaccination occurs, and there are many complications that occur from time to time after vaccination. Because some problems can be life threatening, the vaccination of cats should only be performed by a veterinarian or under the supervision of a veterinarian.

The same principles of colostral transfer, antibody half-life, and neutralization of viruses in the vaccine are applicable to respiratory viruses, feline herpes virus type 1 ( FHV- 1) and feline calicivirus ( FCV ). There will be interference with respiratory vaccines if the maternally derived securities are sufficiently high. In general, antibody titers FHV - 1 and FCV are much lower than the title FP and thus the interference time ( and passive protection) is much shorter. This general protection does not last more than five to six weeks for FHV-1, and seven to eight weeks for FCV. In eight to ten weeks of age, the vast majority of cats can be successfully vaccinated against FHV- I and FCV.

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